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Tlamachtiliztli 23 Tlen eltoc calihtic (What is Inside the House)


In this lesson we will learn the relational terms that function like adverbs and prepositions, which indicate where, when, and how an action is done. These words and particles are used in two ways.

First, with prefixes for possessed nouns (no-, mo-, i-, to-, inmo-, inin-), as well as “te-“, “tla-” and “ø”. For example:

no – huahca     “close to me”

Second, with substantive and verbal bases, which are attached directly to the relational terms. For example:

cacal – ican     “behind the house”


Niahci amoxcalli

Niquiza nochan, ninehnemi xitlahuac huan niahci pan hueyi ohtli teipan nimomalacachoa ica nemahtli huan pehua ninehnemi xitlahuac quennopa niahci campa eltoc ce hueyi cuahuitl. Nopayah pano tepozcacalachtli tlen ahci nechca amoxcalli. Nitemo inacaztlan campa tlacualnamacah teipan nitlailacatzoa ica arrebez huan niixtlehco quentzin huan quennopa niahci amoxcalli tlen caltlamachtiloyan.

Show/Hide English translation

I arrive at the library

I leave my house, I walk straight and arrive at a big road. Then I turn right and begin to walk in that same way. I arrive where there is a big tree. In that place, a bus passes that arrives near the library. I get down next to where they sell food, and later I rotate left and go up a little in that way, and I arrive at the library from the school.


Tlamanextilli ica motocaxtilli tlen quipoz iteco (Example with possessive pronouns)

/-ca/     “with, unspecified location”

ica     “with this/that”


/-cuitlapan/     “over the back” (of someone)

nocuitlapan     “over my back”


/-huahca/     “far from”

nohuahca     “far from me”


/-huan/     “and, in the company”

mohuan     “in your company”


/-huanya/     “with, in the company of”

mohuanya     “with you”


/-ixtenno/     “in front of”

noixtenno     “in front of me”


/-tepotzco/     “behind of”

totepotzco     “behind of us”


Tlamanextilli ica tlachihualiztli huan tlatocaxtiliztli (Example of verbs and substantives)

/-can/     “a place of”

Michoacan     “place of fish”


/-yan/     “time or place where an action happens”

tlamayan     “in a plain field”


/-tlan/     “time an event takes place”

mancohtitlan     “season of mangos”

mecohtitlan     “season of festival”

icxitlan     “at the feet of”


/-ihtic/     “inside of”

calihtic     “inside of the house”


/-ixco/     “up, on top, over the face”

teixco     “in front of other people, in front of rocks”


/-ixpan/     “in front of, in the presence of”

calixpan     “in front of the house”


/-nechca/     “near”

nonechca     “near me”


/-tech/     “next to, what belongs to”

caltech     “at the edge of the house” (so it is not an obstacle)


/-tenno/     “on the edge”

miltenno     “at the edge of the cornfield”


/-ican/     “behind of”

cacalican     “behind of the house”


/-pani/     “over, on top of”

calpani     “on top of the house”


/-tzalan/     “under of”

atzalan     “under the water”


/-pan/     “on, up, on top of, long ago”

tlanempan     “in a plain and clean field”


/-tzintlan/     “on the base of”

nacaztzintlan     “at the base of the ear”


/-co, -c, -no/     “on, over”

tlapanico     “on the roof of the house, on the top of the bank”


/-tlah/     “place characterized by abundance”

xochihtlah     “place of abundant flowers”


Yancuic Tlahtolli tlen TlamachtiliztliNew vocabulary

acatitlan     “place where there are a lot of reeds”

apachtitlan     “place where there are a lot of palms”

atenno     “at the edge of the water, river, or stream”

atlauhco     “on the stream”

atzalan     “under the water”

cacalican     “behind the house”

calihtic     “inside the house”

calmapan     “on the hall of the house”

caltech     “at the edge of the house (so it is not an obstacle)

caltenno     “outside of the house”

calixpan     “in front of the house”

calpani     “on top of the house”

chipohtlah     “place where there are a lot of ticks”

cuatenno     “on the bathroom, bank”

cuatitlan     “on the bank”

elohtla     “season of corn”

icxitlan     “at the feet of” (person, animal, or thing)

iicxitzalan     “under the feet of” (person, animal, or thing)

iihtico     “inside of” (person, animal, or thing)

inacaztlan     “at the side of” (person, animal, or thing)

ixcanexcan     “near the house of” (someone)

ixtlan     “in front of” (person, animal, or thing)

mancohtitlah     “season of mango”

mecohtitlan     “season of festival”

michoacan     “place of fish”

millah     “cornfield”

miltenno     “at the edge of the cornfield”

nacaztzintlan     “at the base of the ear”

nocuaixpan     “my forehead”

nohuahca     “far from me”

noican     “behind of me”

noixpan     “in front of me”

noixtenno     “in front of me, at the edge of my eye”

nonechca     “near me”

notlahcotipan     “my waist”

ohtenno     “at the edge of the road”

pampa     “why”

teixco     “in front of other people, over the rocks”

tepeixco     “on top of the hill”

tlalchi     “on the ground”

tlamayan     “on a flat field”

tlanempan     “a flat and clean field”

tlapanico     “on the roof of a house, on top of a bank”

tlapan     “where things are kept”

tlapotexcan     “place where something smells bad”

tlapoyauhcan     “it is already night”

tonayan     “during the day”

tzompan     “at the height of the head”

tzonco     “on top of a tree, trunk”

xochihtlah     “place where there are a lot of flowers”

zacahtlan     “place where there is a lot of grass”

Chantequitl tlen momachtianihPractice for Students

Tequitl ce (Activity One): Describe what things and people are near you, using the relational words.


Tequitl ome (Activity Two):Write the words that correspond to the following image

icxitlan iicxitzalan iihtico inacaztlan ixtlan
nacaztzintlan nocuaixpan nohuahca noican noixpan
nonechca notlahcotipan noixtenno tzompan


Tequitl eyi (Activity Three): Write what is in your house using relational words and the vocabulary we have seen thus far.