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Tlamachtiliztli 22 Tomillah huah totlacualiz (Our Cornfield and Our Food)


In this lesson we will see how the cornfield is cultivated and how food made from beans is cooked.

In the cornfield of rural communities, people plant many things for consumption. Agriculture is a historic labor, and as such, communities from Chicontepec, continue the teachings of their ancestors. In general, this labor is done by using hand tools. In the following lesson, we mention tools and how they are used.

People in Chicontepec typically eat three heavy meals per day. In the morning, in addition to coffee and bread, a stew is prepared with tortillas, sometime between 7 to 8 in the morning. At 11 in the morning, people begin to cook fresh tortillas in order to eat them at midday. After 5 in the afternoon, the same process is repeated so that dinner is ready by 6 to 7 in the evening. In this lesson, we will learn about dishes that use beans in this region of Veracruz.


Note: Images used in this lesson were created by the following people:

CC BY Sabina y Catalina Cruz

CC BY-SA Peotrovitch

CC BY-SA Simon A. Eugester

CC BY Josefrayn


In the following section, we will see the names and tools that are used to cultivate the cornfields.

Tlen motequihuia pan millah (What is used in the cornfield)

/macheteh/     “machete”

Ni ce tlamantli tepoztli tlen quitequihuiah pan millah huan pan calli, ica quitequizceh ce tlamantli, tlaixhuitequizceh, quitequizceh xihuitl tlen axcualli huan ayoccanah ma mozcalti.

“This tool is used in the cornfield and at home in order to cut and cut the weeds that might damage the cornfields.”


/azadon/     “tilling hoe”

Ni ce tlamantli tepoztli tlen quitequihuiah ica quimacuizceh xihuitl ica itzonyo, xihuitl tlen eltoqueh tlatlahco tlen piltoctzitzin, quimacuih para ma mozcaltican cualli huan yehyectzitzin.

“This tool is used in order to take out the weeds from their root, which are among the stems of the corn plants. This is done in order to clean the area and that stems can grow good and healthy.”


/huincaroh/     “billhook”

Ni ce tlamantli tepoztli quentzin tlacuelolli iyacapan huan quitequihuiah ica quitequizceh xihuitl tlen eltoc inacaztlan piltoctzitzin o cequin tlamantli tlacualiztli, ni quitequih pampa axquicahua ma mozcaltih tlamantli tlen mocua.

“This tool is a cutting blade with a hooked tip and it is used to cut weeds that are next the stems of corn plants or other produce, which might damage their growth.”


/alimah/     “filer”

Ni ce tepoztli tlen quitequihuiah ica quitentizceh macheteh o ceyoc tlamantli tlen hueliz tlatequiz.

“The file is used to sharpen machetes or other tools for cutting.”


/pixcomitl/     “tool to shucking ears of corn”

Ni ce piltepoztzin tlen quitequihuiah ica quixipehuazceh cintli tlen petlayoh, ni quence acoxah zan achi quentzin hueyi hueliz caxtolli centímetros.

“This tool is used to peel the husks of corn, which is like a large needle, approximately 15 centimeters in length.”


/cuachiquihuitl/     “large basket”

Ni ce chiquihuitl hueyi huan huahcapantic hueliz tlahco metro. Ni motequihuia quemman pixcah, quimamah huan iihtico quitemah cintli tlen quiquixtihtiyohuih pan toccuahuitl.

“This is a large basket, approximately a half a meter in height. This tool is used in order to deposit harvested corn and placed on the back of someone.”


/cuatlatoctli/     “point to deposit seeds of corn and beans”

Ni ce cuahuitl tlatentilli tlen ica tlacoyoniah quemman tocah huan quitocah etl. Ni ihuexca hueliz ce metro huan tlahco.

“This is a pointed edge that is used in order to make wholes on the field so that corn and bean seeds can be deposited. This is approximately a meter and a half in length.”


Tlatoquiliztli tlen cintli (The planting of  corn)

Tlamantli tlatoquiliztli tlahuel yehyectzin pampa ni tonatiuh chanehqueh tlacatl huan cihuatl motequihuiah. Quemman tocah monequi quincafenmacazceh huan quintlamacazceh tlen quipalehuizceh tocah. Tlacatl mehua niman pehua quinemilia ipilxinach, quitema pan ce coxtalli pampa queuhquinon quihuicaz campa quitocaz (millah). Tlen tepalehuizceh monequih panozceh yahuatzinco ichan tlacatl tlen tocaz huan teipan yazceh millah. Yeca cihuatl monemilia ica cafen huan tlacualiztli tlen yahuatzinco pampa monequi quintlamacaz pan chicome cahuitl. Noque ahcih tequitinih tetah pehua quicui tlen quihuicaz millah quen; imorral, iauh huan zemprador. Tequitinih ahcih pan chicome cahuitl, tlacatl quinmaca atl ma momahtequican, tlacuah nochi zancehco huan quemman tlamihya tlacuah mochiyah ce tlatoctzin teipan yohuihya nochi zancehco millah campa tocazceh.

Ahcih millah zancualliya pan chicueyi cahuitl, huanquinon cehcen monemilia ica ipuntal huan tlen chaneh quinmahmaca pilxinachtzin pan ininmorral tlen quitocazceh. Tlacatl tlen quipalehuiah ya tlayecana quemman tocah. Quemman tocah niman tlamih huan axcanah tequitih cemilhuitl, huan mocuapah zampa tlen chaneh ichan huan ya quinmaca ce ome litroh huinoh, tzopelatl huan quintlamaca quennopa tlami inintonatiuh quionih ce quentzin chichic.


Next we will see the names of various dishes that use beans and are cooked in Chicontepec, Veracruz.

Tlahcuiloliztli tlen tlacualli (Writings about food)

/tici/     “to cook”

Ce cihuatl ica yahuatzinco ya mehua achtohui, yohui campa tlacualchihua, nopayoh tlipitza, noque cahuani tlitl, ya pehua quipahpaca ipilchachapal tlen pan quimanaz icafen. Teipan noque moloni cafen quipaca nextamalli huan teipan pehua tlaxamania pan molinoh zo pan metlatl.

Quemman molonquiya cafen, quicafenmaca itetah huan ininconehuan, tlan itztoqueh conemeh pampa yazceh momachtitih. Nican cihuatl axcanah mocehuia tlan quioniz cafen pampa ya monequi quicencuiliz itequiuh. Quemman tlami tlaxamania, ya quiatilia itix huan teipan quitlipichia icomal, nouhquiya quicualtlalia tlen quicuazceh yahuatzinco. Cihuatl tlatehteca huan quintlamaca nochimeh, teipan ya tlacua icelti quemman nochi yahquehya campa tequitih zo momachtiah. Ya mocahua calihtic icelti motequichihua.


/etlatzoyontli/    “refried beans”

Ce tlacualiztli tlen mochihua ica etl, iztatl, atl, aceyiteh, chilli, cebollah huan colantoh. Ni axoncah tonatiuh para mocuaz, mocua zan quemman quinequizceh. Ni tlacualiztli tlahuel ahhuiac, quen achtohui momolonia etl ica atl huan achi iztatl. Noque moloni quitehtequih chilli, cebollah huan colantoh. Quemman iuccicca etl motepexohuia huan momana ce cuecuetztzin pilchachapaltzin campa motzoyoniz ce quentztin etl. Quemman momantocca pilchachapaltzin pan tlitl huan totonicca huahca motequilia achi aceyiteh teipan motemilia cebollah huan chilli, iucci cualli teipan motequilia ome zo eyi polatoh etl tlen momolonihqui pan hueyi chachapalli huan quennopa mocahua ma moloni cualli.

Teipan motepexihuia huan zampa motlicomana chachapalli tlen quipiya miac etl. Quemman moloniya huacca motequilia nopa etl tlen motzoyonihqui pan pilchachapaltzin. Quennopa mocahua nochi zancehco ma moloni huan teipan motepexihuia.

Answer the following questions about the previous dishes:

  1. Tlen quichihua cihuatl ica yohuatzinco?
  2. Quenque axcanah cafeoni cihuatl?
  3. Ica tlen tlacualiztli zaniloa tlahcuiloliztli B)?
  4. Tlen quitlalhuiliah tlacualiztli?
  5. Quenque momana ceyoc pilchachapaltzin


/piquiz/     “bean tamales”

Ce tlacualiztli tlen mochihua pan pilaltepetzitzin tlen Chicontepec. Ni ce tlacualliztli tlen mochihchihua zan ica tixtli, etl, iztatl huan chilli tlamoltili, mantecah zo aceyiteh huan nouhquiya totomochtli. Ni totomochtli moaquechia tlen pan quipiquizceh tixtli. Axoncah ce tonatiuh quemman mocualtlalia zan quemman quinequih quicuazceh huacca quichihchihuah.

Tlen achtohui mochihua momolonia etl ica quentzin iztatl, noque moloni moxamania nextamalli. Quemman eltocca etl huan quentzin ceuhquiya huacca cihuatl quicui tixhuapalli zo ce tecomitl hueyi, nopayoh quitema tixtli huan pehua quitemilia etl, iztatl, chilli huan mantecah teipan pehua quimaneloa nochi zancehco, quimachilia tlan cualtitocca ica iztatl huan chilli. Teipan pehuaya quicui achi quence ce pilmahtzoltzin huan quitlalia pan totomochtli quichihua piltolontzin huan quipiqui cualli.

Quemman tlamiya quichihua nochi, quimana ce chachapalli hueyi pan tlitl ica quentzin atl, quipehpechtia ica olotl, nopayoh quitema nochi nopa piquiz huan cualli quitlipichia para ma iucci. Mocahua pan tlitl hueliz ome cahuitl ma cualli moloni. Teipan quimachilia tlan iuccicca huan tlan eltocca huacca quitepexihuia huan tlacuah.


/etixtli/     “bean corn cakes”

Ce tlamantli tlacualiztli tlen mochihchihua zan quemman quinequih quicuazceh, tiquihtozceh axcanah monequi ce tonatiuh, quence ce ilhuitl. Ni tlacualiztli mochihchihua zan ica etl tlatixtli, iztatl, alahhueno, chilli huan mantecah. Achtohui momolonia etl huan moxamania nextamalli. Nouhquiya mocacatzoa alahhueno pan comalli teipan motici pan metlatl axcanah motequilia atl, queuhquinon zan huactoc. Quemman iucciya etl pehua quiticih pan metlatl, quemman tlamiya quiticih quichihuah zan tolontic huan quitlalhuiliah iztatl, alahhuenoh tlatixtli huan achi mantecah, quitlaliah inacaztlan tixhuapalli.

Teipan quiatiliah tixtli huan pehuah quipahpatlahuah pan metlatl zan tlen zancualli axmaz tilahuac. Teipan iixco quitlalhuiliah etl tlatixtli huan pehuah quimimiloah nochi huan quicotontiyohuih zan tlen zancualli para quichichuaz ce piltilactzin. Quichihchihuah zan pan ininmah huan quitecah pan comalli ma iucci, quicuahcuapah quence ce tlaxcallli parah ma cualli iucci.


/etlapanilli/     “soup of beans with avocado and chilli”

Ce tlacualiztli nouhquiya axcanah oncah ce tonatiuh para mocuaz. Nican motequihuia etl, tixtli, iztatl, ahuacaizhuatl, huan chilli. Motequihuia etl tlen yancuic, celic, zo maneltic. Achtohui motlapana teipan mopahpaca huan momolonia ica iztatl. Quemman iuccicca monemilia ce achi tixtli huan moatilia, nouhquiya momoltilia achi chilli huan momaneloa ica ahuacaizhuatl. Ni etl axcanah motepexihuia, ni mochihchihua tlixihco huan nopayoh quitemilia nochi tlacualpahtli tlen monequi para ni tlacualiztli. Motemilia tixtli tlaatili, ahuacatl ixihuiyo tlailpili, (ce macuilli), chilli zan tlen zancualli huan iztatl. Queuhquinon mocuahtlalia teipan momachilia tlan cualtitocca quemman molonquiya motepexohuia.


/patzcalli/     “soup of beans with seseme seeds and chilli”

Ni tlacualiztli mochihua zan pan ilhuitl tlen itlamiyah tonatiuh tlen meztli tlen Octubre. Ni tlacualiztli quihuica etl, aholin, chilli, xonacatl huan alahhueno. Etl momolonia ica atl huan achi iztatl. Noque iucci etl, nouhquiya mocacatzoa aholin huan teipan motici pan metlatl nopayoh quitlalhuilia achi chilli huan ica quiticih zancehco. Ni eli yehyectzin chichiltic huan quemman tlamiya quiticih huacca quitlalhuiliah achi iztatl zan tlen zancualli teipan quimahmaneloah huan quitolonchihuah.

Quemman iuccica etl huacca quiatiliah ce quentzin aholin tlen motizqui huan nouhquiya quitehtequih xonacatl. Tlen nopa quicuic quitzoyoniah pan ce cuecuetztzin pilchachapaltzin huan teipan quemman molonquiya huacca quitecah pan chachapalli tlen quipiya etl. Nouhquiya quitlalhuiliah ce piltlatzquintzin alahhueno. Teipan quimachiliah huan quicahuah ma moloni cualli, teipan quitepexihuiah huan tlacuah.

Chantequitl tlen momachtianihPractice for Students

Tequitl ce (Activity One): Respond to the clues about the tools that are used in the cornfield

  1. Tlamantli tepoztli tlen quitequihuia macehualli ica tlaixhuitequiz.
  2. Tepoztli huan ica cuahuitl quitequihuia macehualli ica quimehuaz tlamantli xihuitl tlen axcualli.
  3. Tlamantli tlen quitequihuia macehualli pan quitemaz cintli quemman pixca.
  4. Cuahuitl zancualli huan tlatentilli, macehualli quitequihuia ica quitocaz xinachtli.
  5. Tepoztli pitzactzin huan yacahuitztic, macehualli quitequihuia ica quixipehuaz cintli.
  6. Tepoztli huihcoltic, macehualli quitequihuia ica quitequiz xihuitl tlen axcualli campa mocahua.
  7. Tepoztli tlen quipiya eyi iixayac huan campa quiitzquizceh, macehualli quitequihuia ica quitentiz tlamantli tepoztli tlen quitequihuia millah.


Tequitl ome (Activity Two): Respond to the following multiple choice questions

¿Queniuhqui itocah tlapohualiztli tlen huahcapan?

a) Tlacualiztli b) Tlatoquiliztli c) Campeca

¿Pan tlen quitema tlacatl ipilxinach quemman quihuicaz millah quitocati?

a) Coxtalli b) Chiquihuitl c) Cobetah

¿Tlen quichihua cihuatl noque ahcih tequitinih ichan?

a) Cochi b) Tlipitza c) Cafen huan tlacualli

¿Tlen maz quicui tlacatl chaneh noque ahcih tequitinih ichan?

a) Imorral, iauh huan zembrador b) Xinachtli c) Coxtalli huan cintli

¿Tlen quinmaca chaneh tequitinih ica tiotlac quemman mocuapah ichan?

a) Huinoh huan tzopelatl b) Atl huan tzopelatl c) Huinoh huan atl


Tequitl eyi (Activity Three): Respond to the following questions about the kinds of foods you like

  1. Tlen tlamantli tlacualiztli ticamatizquia ticcua?
  2. Tlen tlamantli cencah quitlalhuiliah tlacualiztli?
  3. Catlinya tlacualiztli axquihuica atl?
  4. Xiquihcuilo queniuhqui mochihua tlacualiztli tlen ticamati campa ta tihuallauh?


Tequitl nahui (Activity Four): Respond to the following questions about piquix and etixtli

  1. Ica tlen tlamantli quichihuah piquiz huan etixtli?
  2. Ica tlen quipiquih piquiz huan etixtli?
  3. Tlen tlamantli quipihuiah pan tlacualiztli etixtli?
  4. Pan tlen quipahpatlahuah tixtli?